Health is a fundamental human right, the meaning of which is defined by the World Health Organization's Charter. The term Public Health, however, differs from the usual, personalized approach to health and disease, as it recognizes broader horizons aimed at preventing and promoting health, epidemiological research and targeted interventions to improve the health of the entire population. The main areas of public health research are concerned with the assessment of the health impacts of various policies and programs, the management of health hazards and emergencies, the improvement of the quality of services and living conditions, and the evaluation of priorities and interventions in Public Health. Public Health challenges in the municipality of Aliartos are largely the result of the socio-economic and demographic changes that have taken place in the last years of the crisis (widening health inequality, increasing morbidity rates, increasing number of psychiatric illnesses, increasing number of chronic illnesses and an increased flow of refugees), existing environmental conditions (waterlogging, high humidity) and some local peculiarities (obsolete water supply system, untrained collection of herbs and herbs). Accordingly, Public Health priorities focus on a combination of educational, financial and environmental support activities. Recognizing and prioritizing Public Health priorities is an essential prerequisite for promoting health and improving it throughout the population. The solution lies in combining educational, financial and environmental support activities, in a spirit of interdisciplinary and cross-sectoral cooperation.