Maria Polikandrioti , Antonia Kalogianni
Diabetes mellitus is a disease related to numerous complications, including neuropathy, peripheral vascular disease and trauma. These complications in conjunction with the infection of the foot ulcers is the leading cause of amputations of feet (non-traumatic lower limb amputation). Aim: The purpose of this study was to systematically review the evidence on the way and methods of caring diabetic foot. Method and material: The method οf the present study included research of medical and nursing literature data-bases using specific keywords. Results: The review of the literature showed that the most effective intervention to prevent and treat ulceration of diabetic foot is patients’ education which should be mainly focused on early recognition of the diabetic foot, daily self-care, proper footwear, modification of the way of living and adherence of the participants to the instructions of healthcare team. Relevant research has shown that diabetic patients attending education programs should initially be stratified according to their needs and afterwards to be determined the type of intervention management according to the foot risk category they belong. The ultimate goal of every educative intervention is to reduce the incidence of ulceration and amputation through reinforcing patients' knowledge of prevention and self-management. Conclusions: Foot care education is absolutely necessary to be incorporated in the diabetic treatment approach. Through educative interventions diabetic patients will acquire the essential knowledge and skills that contribute to the improvement of their clinical outcome.
Keywords: diabetic foot, lower limb amputation, diabetic foot ulceration, prevention, education