Introduction: Clinical experience suggests that depression and anxiety are connected with the onset and progress of heart failure (HF). Aim: The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of stress and depression in the onset and progress of HF. Material and method: A literature review was conducted in order to identify articles relevant to the stress and depression in patients with HF, published in the English language, during the last decade (1-1-2002 to 31-5-2011), using different databases such as PubMed, CINAHL και Cochrane. The key words were: "heart failure", "anxiety", "depression", "quality of life", "psychiatric symptoms", "psychological support". Results: The literature review showed that psychosocial factors, such as stress and depression, both have a significant role in the onset of diseases that cause HF and in the progression of HF. Also, it is shown that early and effective treatment of psychosocial factors can lead to a reduction in the frequency and severity of HF. In this effort nurses could help by applying new methods and techniques. Conclusions: The correlation of anxiety and depression with the onset and progress of HF could trigger nurses to adopt new therapeutic interventions, which will help them treat patients with HF in a better and more holistic way.