The applications of emission x- g- and b- rays in Medicine give solution to everyday diagnostic and therapeutic problems, but expose the Medical staff in radiation risk and its consequences. Aim: The purpose of this article was the review of literature relating to the risk of radiation exposure and radiation protection instructions for doctors, technologists and nurses during their contact with patients who have or had performed studies using ionizing radiation. Method and Material: The methodology οf this study included bibliography research from both the review and the research literature, between 2000-2012 mainly in the Pubmed data base which referred radiation protection and risk of radiation exposure for practitioners of Medicine, using the key words: radioprotection, radiation exposure, practitioners of medicine, ionizing radiation. Results: According to the literature, professional places such as Radiology laboratories, Nuclear Medicine departments, Invasive and Radiotherapy departments should carry special lead cover for surfaces and machines to prevent aimless radiation exposure of the staff and visitors, but also appropriate stamping of the restricted areas. Every worker (doctor, technologist, nurse) in place with ionizing radiation should follow the suggested radiation protection instructions. The worker is obliged, apart from maintaining the maximum possible distance from the source of radiation and the decrease of stay close to the radiation source, to carry his personal dosimeter and all the supplied means like, lightweight aprons, nippers and containers for small bottles, lead glasses, barriers, etc. Conclusions: Functionaries of Medicine nursing and taking care radiated patients should be informed from the responsible physicist about the means of their radioprotection. In case of exceed of the maximum radiation dose for workers in places with ionizing radiation, according the current Low there is radiation protection days off.