Coronary disease is one of the most widespread epidemics that the world has ever seen. The cause and the pathogenesis of the disease derive from the development of the atheromatic plaque, the creative mechanism of which is complicated. The most common risk factors for the incidence of atheromatosis are genetic and psychological, the way of living and the state of health of the individual. Among these factors, nutrition constitutes a significant risk factor for coronary disease.
The aim of this review was to study the role of nutrition to the development of coronary disease.
The method of this study included bibliography research from both the review and the research literature, mainly during the last five 5 years and was referred to the relationship of coronary disease and nutrition.
Results: Most studies focus on the role of serum cholesterol, mainly the LDL lipoprotein as the main factor for the development of atheromatic plaque in combination with other factors such as hypertension, smoking and obesity. From the foods the ones that are rich in animal saturated fats, are responsible for the increase of the serum cholesterol. However the adoption of the Mediterranean diet which contains olive-oil cereal fibbers and legumes as well as fish which is rich to n-3 fatty acids, little meat, fruits and light consumption of wine has a protective role to the development of coronary disease.
Conclusively the intake of saturated fatty acids which increase the levels of serum cholesterol and the levels of LDL cholesterol should be avoided and replaced by monosaturated, n-3 fatty acids and n-6 fatty acids. The Mediterranean diet is necessary not only to high risk individuals for coronary disease but to other populations.