The Rheumatoid Arthritis (R.A.) is one from the more usual rheumatic diseases of adult life and causes dysfunctions with enormous cost in the natural situation, as well as in professional, familial, social and psychological sector. The disease is characterized from chronically, multiplicity and fluctuation of intensity of symptoms, inability quantified the future prognosis of the disease, symptomatic and no causative therapy. The R.A. is characterized as chronic disease, owed in the interaction of various pathological factors: genetics, bodilies, and psychological. The acceptance of chronic disease from the patient with R.A. is not a conveniently process. The patients with chronic illness find itself in a continuous pressure and the psychological, social and financial problems, which are created at its confrontation, need medical-nursing intervention. The creation of good communication with the patient with R.A. will be decisive for his therapeutic approach and the holistic relief of illness. Aim of this review is are investigated all the causative factors that contribute in the event of R.A., as well as are sought the most contemporary and evolved therapeutic methods of confrontation.
The purpose of this bibliographical review is to show the role of the family in the application of care of a patient suffering from a cerebrovascular accident (CVA). CVA's are, second to arthritis, one of the most impairing illnesses in terms of ability that creates the need for training the patient on a new basis and giving the family information on new roles. One of the dimensions of holistic family care is the increased support the patient receives from family care givers. Studies and clinical research both show that informing families on care giver roles is inadequate or non‐existent. Adequate training of nurses to prepare care givers via specialized programs stimulates the family to respond to the new challenge and take on roles that are multidimensional and complicated. It is important that family care givers of people with CVA's are given new information and taught new skills in order for these patients to maximize their own self‐care potential. CVA patients, following the acute phase of their illness and rehabilitation in specialized centers are nursed at home, mainly by their families with the help of healthcare services. Usually, the responsibilities the family takes on are mainly those of self‐care needs of the patient and his motivation, so that he will organize and carry out basic life activities via learning new ways to face everyday life, always within his impaired abilities. Care guidance is a most important nursing intervention so that activities of daily living problems can be addressed. The interventions are tailored according to the care givers' educational level and the patients' needs. CONCLUSIONS The most important findings of the study are: Patients with cerebrovascular accidents have impaired ability concerning mobility, communication and socialization and need special attention and education in order to improve daily life activities. The education of hemiplegic patients with informative intervention, awareness and support improves their functional ability. We have observed that the improvement in functional ability after educational intervention for daily life activities and especially mobility, communication and socialization are not dependent on the patient's sex, age or educational level. It is possible that other factors, not assessed in our study are related to the functional ability of cerebrovascular accident patients to improve their capability and gain in independence. Given that the educational intervention and re-education can improve their movement ability and communication level of hemiplegic patients there is urgent need for Health Care Professionals to intervene early and systemically assess the implementation of re-education and rehabilitation for improving the functional abilities of hemiplegic individuals.
Aiming at the protection of public health general and special rules of hygiene and safety of foods are placed by the European and national legislation in all the stages of their chain of production. From the totality of food provisions in force fundamental principals derive for the dissuasion of unfavourable consequences in the public health, the realisation of sanitary controls is forecasted, as well as the imposition of sanctions.
Keywords: European and national legislation, fundamental principals on the foods, notion of foods, characterization of foods, competent authorities of foods’ control, administrative and penal sanctions
Music has been used therapeutically for many centuries, and numerous studies have researched the curative and preventative powers of music in several diseases. Music, as a therapy was shown to have positive effects in child care, such as in premature infants, children in emergency care, children receiving surgery, children in oncology departments and handicapped children. The aim of this review was to study the therapeutic effects of music in child care at hospital. The method οf this study included bibliography research from both the review and the research internatio nal literature, which was referred to the therapeutic effects of music in Children's Hospital. Results: Most studies focus on the beneficial effects of music to child. The results of the study showed that music is widely used to enhance well‐being and appears to exert direct effects to child, which are mainly related to physiology and psychology, including changes in the vital signs, reductions in anxiety and pain, distraction of attention from unpleasant sensations and better communication with the environment at hospital. Furthermore, music exerts indirect effects to child since is able to cause positive modifications in nurses' behaviour and conduces to better performance in their duties. Conclusions: Music consists a low-cost "therapeutic instrument" for nurses to apply to child-patient and is found to be effective in producing positive outcomes. The nurses' knowledge of music therapy need to be improved and the therapeutic impact of music must be a result from systematic professional application.
The incidence of chemotherapy‐induced peripheral neuropathy is increasing because more neurotoxic drugs have been developed and because patients are living longer and receiving multiple chemotherapy regimens. This article refers to the role nurses play in the early detection of neurotoxicity, the successful of treatment, and the patient's quality of life both during and after treatment. Nurse intervene for peripheral neuropathy in three levels. The first level is the assessment of the patient, the second level is the prevention and the treatment of peripheral neuropathy and the third level is the patient's education.
Aim: We have studied the prevalence of Hepatitis C on the first‐year students of the Paramedical Schools (Medical Lab Department, Nursing Department, Baby Nursing Department and Obstetrics Department of the Health and Foresight Professions School of Technological Educational School of Thessaloniki). Materials and Methods: The sample consists of 502 students of the Paramedical Schools. The students at first filled a questionnaire form (25 questions about the knowledge and the information in point of the infectious diseases) in the Immunological – Hormonological Health Center. Then they gave blood sample and at the end, they were given a "Basic Guidebook for Preventing and Handling Hospital Infections". The samples were checked with ELISA method for anti‐HCV antibodies. Results: All the tests were negative for anti-HCV antibodies. Conclusions: It was ascertained that the prevalence of Hepatitis C on our target group is similar to the literature's known data (low in Greece). However since there is not a vaccine yet, anyone must be careful with Hepatitis C, specially the students of paramedical schools. Radical solution will be given inr the development of an appropriate vaccine.