Introduction: The Sudden infant death syndrome is one of the main causes of infant mortality. SIDS is defined as the sudden death of an infant under 1 year of age, which remains unexplained after a thorough case investigation, including performance of a complete autopsy, examination of the death scene, and review of the clinical history. Aim: The understanding of the pathophysiology, risk factors of the syndrome and knowledge and implementation of prevention strategies. Methodology: Review of studies on database Pubmed, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, NHS Choices and American Academy of Pediatrics. Results: High risk factors are the prematurity, low birth weight, prone sleep position, exposure to passive smoking, overheating, the soft surface, loose blankets and use of drugs and alcohol from parents. Some recommendations to reduce frequency of syndrome are the increase of the breastfeeding, the nonprone position during the sleep, avoiding use pillows and soft mattresses and exposure of infants to harmful factors of cigarettes. Conclusions: Continuing research and training of health professionals and parents is necessary.