Introduction: Central line-associated bloodstream infections (CLABSIs) are one of the most common nosocomial infections and are associated with increased mortality, prolonged hospitalization and increased healthcare costs. Aim: The aim of the present review was to investigate the impact of central line insertion and maintenance care checklists on CLABSIs in Neonatal Intensive Care Units (NICUs), Pediatric Intensive Care Units (PICUs) and Hematology/Oncology Units. Material and Methods: Search was performed on PubMed with the key-words: “children”, “hematology/oncology”, “NICU”, “PICU”, “pediatric intensive care unit”, “neonatal intensive care unit”, “central line-associated bloodstream infections”, “CLABSI”,“checklists”, without time limit for the publication of scientific papers. Studies were excluded if they were not published in English language, were conducted on animals and were case studies, editorials and letters to the editor. Of the 11 studies that were included, 7 referred to NICUs, 2 to PICUs and the remaining 2 to hematology/oncology units. Results: CLABSI rate was reduced in all 11 studies. In NICUs, the highest reduction of CLABSI rate was 92%, in PICUs more than 50% and in hematology/oncology units the reduction was 28% and 64% respectively. Conclusions: Central line insertion and maintenance care checklists reduce CLABSIs, either as an independent intervention or as element of CLABSI bundle.