Osteoporosis is a metabolic disease that causes serious health problems, resulting in morbidity and mortality especially in the elderly, but even at younger age. It concerns all the developed countries including Greece and raises causes socio-economic consequences. The aim of present study was to review the existing literature regarding the contemporaneous methods in diagnosis of osteoporosis. The method οf this study included bibliography research from both the review and the research literature which referred to the relation between diagnosis and osteoporosis. Results: The majority of research studies showed that the most important risk factor for osteoporosis is the increased loss of bone mass, as age is progressing, which in women, usually starts during menopause. This, fact in conjunction with the longer life expectancy of women, explains the growing prevalence of osteoporosis in women compared to men. Other relevant studies have shown that this metabolic disease is related to high risk for bone fractures. The prevention of osteoporosis requires optimization of leading bone density during childhood and adolescence, early detection of increased bone loss in postmenopausal critical period and education of patients being at high risk. Conclusions: The number of candidate osteoporotic patients is high, as well as the final number of individuals who will suffer from the consequences of the disease. The assessment and prevention of osteoporosis requires overall approach of the disease and highlights the need of training the population, factors that, significantly contribute to the control of the disease.