Stroke is currently the third leading cause of death, ranking after heart disease and cancer and causes 10% of deaths, worldwide. Aim: The aim of the present study was to review the literature about the types of stroke and the risk factors for ischemic stroke. The methodoly that was followed included bibliography review from the both the research and the review literature of Greek and international data base which referred to ischemic stroke. Results: Stroke, according to its’ underlying etiology, can be classified into two major categories, ischemic and hemorrhagic. 20% of stroke are of hemorrhagic type, whereas 80% are of ischemic type. Although, ischemic stroke is the most common type, its’ etiology differs. Ischemic stroke is categorized in thrombotic, embolic, lacunar, unknown etiology, transient and due to systematic low blood pressure. In the literature is cited that risk factors for stroke are classified in non-modifiable and modifiable. Non-modifiable risk factors are age, gender, ethnicity and heredity. The most important modifiable risk factors for stroke are high blood pressure and atrial fibrillation. Other modifiable risk factors include high blood cholesterol levels, diabetes mellitus, cigarette smoking (active and passive), carotid artery stenosis, heavy alcohol consumption, drug abuse, lack of physical activity, obesity and unhealthy diet. Conclusions: As it is supported by published evidence, ischemic stroke is of higher incidence compared to hemorrhagic stroke. Risk factor modification remains as the principal aspect of care for ischemic stroke prevention.