Aim: The investigation of the theological and legal questions derived from the application of prenatal and preimplantation genetic control on human embryos. Moreover, the review of the European and Greek legislation with regard to the prenatal and preimplantation control. Material and Method: A literature review based on both review and research literature, conducted during the period of 1984-2009, derived from MEDLINE, SCOPUS and ΙΑΤΡΟΤΕΚ databases using as key words Prenatal diagnosis , Bioethics, Orthodox ethics, preimplantation genetic diagnosis, Legislation. Results: The orthodox theology adopts a negative view for the abortion of fetus, which it is considered murder in any stage of growth. The legal approach brought two basic questions a) the securing of consent from the examined individual and b) the constitutional protection of fetus' life. Conclusions: The orthodox theology, through their teaching places the moral criteria for facing the moral questions derived from the application of prenatal and preimplantation genetic control on human embryos. Also, the Greek citizens need to be informed for all the diagnostic examinations on embryos that should be provided by all public health organizations.