Background: Vitamin B12 deficiency often occurs during pregnancy and has been associated with an increased risk of common pregnancy complications, including miscarriage, low birth weight, etc.
Aim: The aim of this study was to measure the levels of vitamin B12 in pregnant women during the three trimesters and their correlation with hematological factors.
Materials and Methods: The study involved 145 pregnant women aged 31.9 ± 5.5 years. Blood samples were collected from the C-Obstetrics and Gynecology Clinic of the General University Hospital «Attikon». Hematological factors analysis was performed on the same day of the collection on a Counter Sysmex XE-2100 (ROCHE) analyzer.
Results: Vitamin B12 levels decreased significantly during pregnancy. The percentage of pregnant women who developed vitamin B12 deficiency at the end of the third trimester almost doubled compared to the second trimester and approached 47.2%, i.e. almost half of the pregnant women in the study sample. Regarding the first and second trimesters of pregnancy, the incidence of vitamin B12 deficiency did not show any statistically significant or marginal correlation with clinical hematologic parameters, the presence of iron deficiency anemia and iron deficiency, the age, and the history of pregnant women. Finally, it was found that in all three trimesters vitamin B12 is not a statistically significant factor in the formation of Hgb.
Conclusions: The evaluation of the levels of vitamin B12 in the plasma of pregnant women during the third trimester of pregnancy showed that B12 levels decrease significantly during pregnancy. In addition, in the first and second trimesters of pregnancy, low levels of vitamin B12 did not show a statistically significant or marginal correlation with blood parameters. In conclusion, control of vitamin D levels should be performed at the beginning of pregnancy in order to receive appropriate treatment, especially in high-risk groups.