When nurses perform their tasks, they manage situations where maths knowledge is required. Such a situation is the calculation of medication dosage. Aim: The literature review of papers relevant with the mathematical knowledge and drug calculation skills of nurses and nursing students. Material-Method: A search of published research and review articles from January 1989 until March 2012, has been conducted in Pubmed database. The search terms used were: nurses, mathematics skills, numeracy skills and medication dosology calculation skills. Results: Literature review showed that many studies focus in the mathematical knowledge and drug dosage calculation competency of nursing students. Results from these studies revealed that nursing students had poor mathematical knowledge and drug dosage calculation skills. In contrast with students, professional nurses are more likely to have sufficient skills in drug calculations. Apart from the papers analyzing calculation skills' assessment, several studies examined educational interventions in the context of calculation skills enhancement. Accuracy and proficiency in the dosage calculation of medications is a preventive factor of errors made at medication preparation and administration. Conclusion: Mathematical knowledge and drug dosage calculation abilities are interrelated concepts and essential clinical skills for the nurse. The fact that nursing students do not have adequate skills for calculating medications' dosage, might be an issue that schools of nursing education should focus in. Further research of the drug dosage calculation skills is considered essential.
During recent decades more and more research studies have noticed the association between psychiatric disorders (anxiety and depression) and coronary artery disease. The aim of the present study was to review the literature about the association between psychiatric disorders (anxiety and depression) and coronary artery disease as well as the common etiopathogenetic mechanisms of the two diseases. Method and material: The method οf this study included bibliography research from both the review and the research literature, mainly in the pubmed data base which referred to the association between psychiatric disorders (anxiety and depression) and coronary artery disease as well as the common etiopathogenetic mechanisms of the two diseases. Results: According to bibliography, etiopathogenecis of this association has not been fully understood. The main mechanisms that connect psychiatric disorders with coronary artery disease are: a) psychobiological including alterations to autonomous nervous system to hormone and immune system and b) behavioral mechanisms related to the compliance in treatment and change in the way of living. Moreover, it is widely accepted that depression and anxiety that experience patients with coronary artery disease predict a worse prognosis of the disease. Conclusions: Assessment and treatment of anxiety and depression that experience patients with coronary artery disease should be an integral part of the treatment.
The arteriovenous fistula (AVF) is the most frequent form of vascular access for patients undergoing haemodialysis because it ensures good quality of dialysis and reduce haemodialysis mortality. For this reason, the nephrology nurse plays an important role in the appropriate care of fistula with a view to promoting the longevity and prevention of complications. Purpose: The purpose of this review was to investigate the role of Nephrology nurse in the appropriate care of fistula, promoting longevity and reducing complications, based on scientific data and international guidelines. Material-Method: The methodology followed in this review relied on literatures reviews and investigative studies, which were carried out during the period 2000-2012 and international (Medline, PubMed, Cinahl) and Greek databases (Iatrotek) on the care and management of fistula in people undergoing chronic haemodialysis. Key-words were used: Arteriovenous fistula, cannulation techniques fistula, guidelines, vascular access, role of nurse. Results: The arteriovenous fistula (AVF) is the life line for patients undergoing haemodialysis. For this reason, the appropriate care of fistula and its maintenance in a good condition plays an important role for patient΄s life. Conclusions: Nephrology nurse has a major role in the proper management of the fistula and the education of the patient. Additionally, there is a need for cooperation between all the members of the multidisciplinary team, which includes dialysis nurse, nefrologist, access surgeon, and radiologist, for the broader assessment of fistula and the prevention and timely treatment of any complications.
Children's rights provide a unique and child-centred approach to pediatric problems and generally provide a framework for improving children's lives around the world. Regarding acknowledgment of the significance of the Children's rights, the results of the literature review are controversial since little progress has been remarked in some countries, but real change in others. According to the majority of the research studies the most significant issue is to ensure that the institutions and services responsible to provide health care to children are able to apply in daily clinical practise the children's right to health. The most important step to achieve this goal is to involve children in decisions regarding their medical treatment. It is widely accepted that children need provision of a holistic care based on their needs and their individual development.
Health professionals often witness in-hospital episodes of cardiac arrest. The quality of the Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR) depends on the level of theoretical background and practical skills. Purpose: The aim of the present study was to investigate the level of theoretical knowledge of skilled cardiologists and anesthesiologists in the Basic and Advanced Life Support (BLS/ ALS). Material - method: In this study, sample included 240 cardiologists and anesthesiologists, chosen randomly from employers of 17 General Public Hospitals of Athens. For data collection, a questionnaire with 16 theoretical questions was designed, based on the guidelines of the European Resuscitation Council (ERC) 2005. Significance level was set at p=≤0,05. The analysis was performed with the Statistical Package IBM SPSS Statistics 19. Results: No statistically significant difference was observed between specialists cardiologists and anesthesiologists in overall performance in theoretical knowledge on the BLS and ALS. Additionally, no statistical significance was observed between the two separate groups of theoretical background. Statistically significant difference was observed among those who had participated in a training seminar in BLS and ALS and those who had not participated (p<0,001). Also, there was statistical significance between the follow-up seminar in BLS/ ALS and specialty for the right answer to the question "which is the right ratio of chest compressions and ventilation", (p<0,001). Conclusions: The level of background knowledge of specialist cardiologists and anesthesiologists in the algorithms of BLS and ALS seem to correlate to the attendance of a training course.
Epilepsy is a neurological disorder that leads to occasional epileptic seizures, affecting the quality of life. Aim: The aim of the present study was to explore the current psychological and social profile of epileptic patients in Greece and to identify the main differences as compared to a former similar research. Material and Methods: A sample of 91 questionnaires, from a total of 350 inpatients with epilepsy at a Public Hospital, during the years 2008 to 2009 (response rate 26%). For data analysis, we used simple descriptive statistical analysis (at significance level of α=5% and α=10%) and factor analysis, using SPSS 16.0. Results: Our research showed that the quality of life of people with epilepsy in Greece seems to have improved significantly during the last decade, as their crises have been reduced by 15,7% and their employment has increased by 13% . Conclusions: All that mean that these people are no longer been placed in the margin of society and they succeed in living a normal life with the certain limitations of their disease.
The factors affecting the psychological situation of menopausal women have often been examined in the past. Aim: The purpose of the present study was to examine the psychological disorders that arise in menopausal women receiving Hormone Replacement Therapy (HRT) in comparison to those not receiving HRT. Material and Method: The sample of the study included 216 menopausal women, 40-60 years old, divided into two groups and examined twice in a six months period apart. The first group included 100 women receiving HRT for at least three months period, while the second group included116 women not receiving HRT. A demographic inventory, the Greene Climacteric Scale, the Hamilton Anxiety Scale and the CES-D Depression Scale were used. Results: 46.3% of women were taking HRT while 53.7% were not. In the first interview the mean values of the Greene Scale were for the first group 13.21±9.61 and for the second one 25.33±12.25, (p<0.001), while at the second interview the mean values were 9.17±6.93 and 28.65±13.25 respectively, (p<0.001). In the Hamilton scale at the first interview the mean values of the first group were 5.74±8.29 and for the second one 19.28±11.90 (p<0.001), while at the second interview the mean values were 4.43±7.75 and 19.47±11.75 respectively (p<0.001) and were above the threshold of a clinically anxiety syndrome. The mean values of the CES-D in the first interview were 10.33±7.58 in the first group and 11.20±11.22 in the second one (p<0.001), while at the second interview were 8.61±6.25 and 11.82±11.59 respectively (p<0.001). Multiple linear regression analysis demonstrated that the education level interprets 49.4%, 28.4% and 17.1% of the variable, for Greene, Hamilton and CES-D scales respectively (Β=-4.563, p<0.001, Β=-3.012, p=0.005 και Β=-4.175, p<0.001 respectively). Conclusions: HRT seem to provide significant improvement in menopausal psychological symptoms. Further studies are needed in order to clarify relative contributing factors.