Quarterly scientific journal

Rostrum of Asclepius Vol 12, No. 4 (2013): October - December 2013

Vima AsklipiouRostrum of Asclepius Vol 12, No. 4 (2013): October - December 2013

Editorial

And yet there are | 374-375

Christina Marvaki

Review

Guidelines for hand hygiene in hospital | 376-386

Christina Sotnikova , Georgia Fasoi

AbstractMore

The appropriate compliance of rules regarding hand hygiene, have been and continue to be, one of the basic points of all prevention programs of nosocomial infections. Aim: The aim of the present study was the presentation of guidelines for hand hygiene by nurses. Method and material: Study of international and Greek literature from electronic databases Medline, PubMed and scientific journals, KEELPNO mainly from the last three years. The keywords used were: nosocomial infections, hand hygiene, antiseptics and guidelines. Results: There are numerous studies that demonstrate the central role of hand hygiene of employees in transmission of microorganisms in the hospital environment. Hand hygiene is a process, which should not be omitted or replaced by the use of antiseptics. The professionals position in the hospital, the workplace and staff shortages, in conjunction with the large number of hospitalized patients seem to be the main factors that negatively affect the compliance with hand hygiene. The staff working in the hospital, especially with high-risk patients (ICU, surgery) should not wear artificial nails, nail polish and jewelry - rings and should not have inflammation or infection on their hands. Conclusions: Hand hygiene should be applied before and after contact with each patient. Nurses have to comply with these guidelines, in order for the effective prevention and control of nosocomial infections.

Keywords: Nosocomial infections, hand hygiene, antiseptics, guidelines

Nosocomial Infections in Neonatal Intensive Care Units | 387-396

Christina Nanou , Ioanna Paulopoulou

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Neonates, especially prematures, requiring care in Intensive Care Unit are a highly vulnerable population group at increased risk for nosocomial infections. In recent decades become one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit. Aim: Highlighting the severity of nosocomial infections for hospitalized infants and the imprinting of risk factors that affects their development. Material-Methods: Searched for studies published in international scientific journals during the period 2004-2013. As a main tool of retraction of bibliography was used the internet. Specific web sites and library databases: PubMed, Cinahl and Google scholar with key-words: "prevent nosocomial infections", "infection control", "neonatal care", "nursing care prematurity", "neonates nosocomial infections", "neonatal intensive care unit" (NICU). Methodology was applied thematic content analysis, which provides a careful reading of the material and recording the recurring risk factors Neonatal Neonatal Unit. Results: All researchers agree that nosocomial infections of hospitalized infants are a result of interaction of intrinsic and extrinsic factors risk. The intrinsic factors predisposing to infection is the immaturity of the immune system, the barriers of the skin and mucous membranes. Furthermore, multiple external factors contribute to the development of infection, such as low birth weight, underlying disease, broad-spectrum antibiotics, prolonged hospitalization, invasive techniques, parenteral nutrition, numerical insufficiency of staff, and poor compliance with medical professionals on hand hygiene. In recent years, the use of protocols and guidelines for each intervention in newborns has dramatically reduce the incidence of nosocomial infections. Conclusions: Nosocomial infections constitute serious threat to the population of the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit. Surveillance of infections and the use of protocols will help control and prevent them.

Keywords: Nosocomial infections, Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, risk factors, premature

Special Article

Depression in non-psychiatric patients | 397-408

Maria Polikandrioti , Spyridoula Stefanidou

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Depression is disabling chronic mental illness that prevents a person from functioning normally. The structural setting of depressive disorder requires the distribution of individual symptoms on the five following key - dimensions : a) emotional / experiential, b) behavioral, c) physical, cognitive, and e) functional. Most likely, depression is caused by a combination of genetic, biological, environmental, and psychological factors. The most common treatment options are medication and psychotherapy. Taken for granted that depression can be effectively treated, early screening and treatment are imperative.

Keywords: Depression, diagnosis and treatment of depression

Original Paper

The role of level of functioning, life satisfaction and leisure activities in elderly depressive symptomatology | 409-427

Ioanna Tzonichaki , Maria Malikiosi-Loizos , George Kleftaras

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Today's elderly people make up a large part of the population and depressive symptoms they show requires specialized intervention health professionals. Purpose: The purpose of the present research was to study the phenomenon of elderly depressive symptomatology and its relationship with their quality of life as judged by the performance of daily life activities, perceived life satisfaction and leisure activities. Method and material: The studied sample consisted of107 elderly, 62 men and 45 women, who lived in the community, members of Open Care Centres for the Elderly (K.A.P.I.) and the Friendship Club of the wider area of Attica. They completed the Questionnaire of Depressive Symptomatology, the Life Satisfaction Index, the Satisfaction with Performance Scale Questionnaire and the Leisure Time Activities Questionnaire. The statistical analysis of the results was done with SPSS-v. 20,and more specifically with the method of correlation. Results: The results showed that there is a statistically significant negative correlation between the level of life satisfaction of the elderly and depressive symptomatology. They also showed a statistically significant negative correlation between the ability to solve social problems and depressive symptomatology. Not statistically significant relationship between the capacity to manage the home and depressive symptomatology was recorded. Of the areas related to leisure, only activities relaxing the person, social and personal hobbiesrelated negatively with depressive symptomatology but not the physical activities, a finding which supports previous results regarding the efficiency in managing the home. Conclusions: Thus, according to the results of the present study the health professionals working with older people with depressive symptomatology should, in their interventions initially encourage activities that give life satisfaction and then focus their program on strengthening the individual to perform social activities, leisure activities and personal hobbies.

Keywords: Depression, level of functioning, satisfaction of life, leisure time activities, elderly

Anxiety and depression in patients with lung cancer under chemotherapy. Assessment with the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale | 428-440

Dimitrios Karapoulios , Ioannis Getsios , Victoria Rizou , Anna Tsiklitara , Stefania Kostopoulou , Chrysanthi Balodimou , Nikoletta Margari

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Cancer and particularly lung cancer, which is the most prevalent form of cancer worldwide, constitute a major health problem in developed countries. Beyond physical problems, the prevalence of psychiatric morbidity is also high. Aim: Τo investigate the prevalence of two major psychological disorders, anxiety and depression in patients with lung cancer. Materials and Methods: One hundred and twenty eight (128) patients of a provincial general hospital filled in the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). Descriptive and analytic statistics was performed. SPSS 17.0 was used for analysis. Statistical significance was set at p<0.05. Results: Males were 55.5 % of the sample. Less than 10 % had severe complications. The estimation of depression in the sample was 18%, while anxiety was estimated at 10% of the sample. Statistically significant differences were observed between depression and gender (p=0.035) and anxiety and alimentary system complications (p=0.002). Conclusion: Patients suffering from lung cancer exhibit high levels of anxiety and depression. Gender and alimentary tract complications seem to associate with psychological disorders.

Keywords: Lung cancer, depression, anxiety, complications

Τraumatic brain injury in the prefecture of Laconia during the time period of 2005-2010 | 441-458

Georgia Gkiouzeli , Maria Tsironi , Stylianos Katsaragakis , Athanasios Sachlas , Georgios Vasilopoulos , Sofia Zyga

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In Greece, every year, about 35.000 people admitted to hospitals due to traumatic brain injuries and about 1.600 of them dies. The main cause is traffic accidents. They can cause death to young people, especially 19 to 25 years. The aim of this study was to investigate the occurrence and distribution of traumatic brain injuries in the Emergency Department of the General Hospital of Sparta. Material and Methods: This study was carried out by collecting data from the hospital records and the patients log books at the Emergency Department of Sparta General Hospital. A specially designed data record sheet was employed, which included patient demographic data, hospital access method, clinical condition, injury classification and severity, possible co-existing trauma, diagnostic tests, treatment, clinical outcome as well as data relating to the trauma mechanism and causes. Statistical evaluation took place in the form of parametric tests with IBM SPSS Statistics 20. Results: A total of 1785 head trauma injury adults patients, that were referred to the Emergency Department from 2005 to 2010 were included. Exploring the association of cranium-cerebral causes with demographic factors, as far as the adults are concerned the following emerged: The causes of CCT are influenced by gender (p<0.001), nationality (p<0.001) and place of residence (p<0.001).The main cause of CCT for men was car accidents while for women it was falls. The main cause of CCT among Greeks is falls while among foreigners it is physical abuse. In all the municipalities of Laconia the main cause of CCT was car accidents, apart from the residents of Evrotas and Sparta for whom the main cause was falls. The main outcome for the adults was associated with the admission to hospital (p<0.001) and with the cause of CCT (p<0.001). Conclusions: The study highlighted the extent of this social issue at local level and the enormous problem of recording traumatic brain injury. Deficiencies identified in missing information and diversity in ways of keeping data.

Keywords: Traumatic brain injury, treatment, epidemiology, accidents

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