According to Alma-Ata declaration on Primary Health Care in 1978, care should be provided where people work and live. Health promotion programs have multiple effects in community and public health. Participation of general population is a prerequisite for health policy. In workplaces health promotion aims to healthy employees in healthy enterprises. So apart from the improvement of work environment, individual empowerment is important for a healthier way of life. The present study aims to present parameters of work and health relationship in its historical evolution to a legal obligation. Health and Safety Services comprise a unique contribution to Public Health. In the 21th century Occupational Health and Safety Services provide a unique chance for contribution to Public Health. This article intends to present the way, the latter would be attainable.
Hospital infections constitute the object of regulation in most European countries, as their impact in the increase of morbidity and medical costs is well known. This is a comparative study between Greek and French law systems about hospital infections. Thus, while the greek legislator has just announced basic institutions relating to the coping of these infections-that is Hospital Infections Committee in the Ministry of Health and corresponding Committees at hospital level-French law has been more pluralistic. Civil and administrative jurisdictions have created a very important jurisprudence, as far as the economic benefits of patients-victims of hospital infections are concerned. However, French legislation, according to the Law No 303/2002 has arranged definitely the problem of damages of these patients.
Hospital waste can be categorized as infectious or noninfectious. Infectious waste includes human animal or biological waste and any items that may be contaminated with pathogens. Noninfectious waste includes toxic chemicals, cytotoxic drugs, and radioactive, flammable, and explosive waste. The treatment methods include steam sterilization, incineration, thermal inactivation, gas/vapor sterilization, chemical disinfection, and sterilization by irradiation. Each hospital should develop an infectious waste management plan that provides for (1) designation of the waste that should be managed as infectious, (2) segregation of infectious waste from the noninfectious waste, (3) packaging, (4) storage, (5)treatment, (6) disposal, (7) contingency measures for emergency situations, and management, hospital waste (8) staff training.
ΕΒΙ089, a vitamin D analogue, induces growth inhibition, differentiation and apoptosis in tumor cells in vitro and in vivo. In this preliminary report we present the effects of EB1089 on tumor size and blood calcium levels, on 16 C3H/Sy mice bearing SMCs. Material-Method One experimental (n=7) and one control groups were formed when a palpable tumor was evident. The former group received 0.5 pg/kg EB1089 every other day, the latter received no treatment. Tumor size was measured at 2.5 weeks after treatment initiation, for both groups. Blood was taken before sacrifice for calcium measurements. Results Our results show that EB1089 statistically decreases the tumor size and prolongs survival, causing also calcium elevation. Conclusions The findings suggest that EB1089, might be a promicing antitumor agent, provided that monitoring of doses will be attended.
To assess the burden of underreporting occupational diseases in Greece. Material-Method Data were collected for the period under study (1996-1999) on employment and occupational diseases registered officially in European countries. Under the assumption that health hazards at work are similar, a prediction of the possible size of underreporting was estimated. Results Approximately 2500 jobrelated diseases are potentially not reported in Greece annually compared to 71requests for pensioning (1997) due to occupational illness referred to the Social
Insurance Institution. In agricultural sector more than 200 cases and in construction industry more than 250 are estimated as the potential burden of underreporting. From another point of view, occupational diseases of the skin, of respiratory system and hearing loss may account for 400, 300 and, 350 cases, respectively. The officially recognized cases in period under study were around 30, 25, and 2, respectively. Eonclusions The fact that occupational diseases are not reported means deficiencies on surveillance system rather than low incidence. In Greece many reasons account for this lack of reporting. Increased awareness and political decision making could restrict this underreporting of occupational diseases.
Από τα μέσα της δεκαετίας του ’80 αλματώδης πρόοδος έχει επιτευχθεί στην εξέλιξη της χειρουργικής των κηλών, φτάνοντας στο αποκορύφωμα με τη συνεχώς αυξανόμενη χρήση των προσθετικών υλικών. Αυτό ενισχύεται από το γεγονός ότι η αποκατάσταση των κηλών είναι αυτή τη στιγμή η πιο συχνά εκτε λούμενη επέμβαση από το γενικό χειρουργό (750.000 επεμβάσεις το 1998 στις ΗΠΑ). Από αυτές τις χειρουργικές επεμβάσεις υπολογίζεται ότι το 80% αφορούν τοποθέτηση πλέγματος. Μεταξύ των νέων «χωρίς τάση» αποκαταστάσεων οι οποίες βασίζονται στην τοποθέτηση πλέγματος, η χρήση συνθετικού βύσματος έχει αποκτήσει θερμούς υποστηρικτές ανάμεσα σε όλους τους χειρουργούς. Οι τεχνικές αυτές αποδείχθηκαν εύκολες στη χρήση τους με ελάχιστο πόνο και λίγες επιπλοκές. £ίναι τεχνικές ασφαλείς και αποτελεσματικές. Η ελάττωση του αριθμού των υποτροπών μετά τη χρήση τους, τις έχει επιβάλλει διεθνώς. Η μείωση του μετεγχειρητικού χρόνου νοσηλείας έχει σημαντικές κοινωνικές και οικονομικές προεκτάσεις.