The term “complementary” refers to therapies or interventions that are implemented in combination with the traditional medicine, while “alternative” is the therapy that is used instead of western medical practice. Aromatherapy is an ancient complementary therapy and a method of care of the human body, that uses nature products and is based on the beneficial characteristics of essential oils. It is usually combinated with massage and other therapeutic techniques. The essential oils are produced after right process of different parts of plants. A lot of re- earch has been made on the use of aromatherapy in: cutaneous inflammations, infections, arthropathies, psychological disorders, asthma, cancer, stress, depression etc. It is clear that complementary (and alternative) therapies and nursing use a common strategy, the same holistic approach of the patient, the energetic role of the patient, the supportive role of the therapist and the emphasis on the promotion of health. The purpose of this review was to set the basic knowledge on aromatherapy's uses and techniques and also how can aromatherapy be combinated with the everyday nursing practice.
In the last years, research has proved the existence of significant evidence of burnout syndrome, e.g. the physical and psychological exhaustion observed in nurses, which has an impact not only in their work, but also in their personal and social life. Therefore, immediate support measures are imperative. Nurses and nursing administrators need to be constantly informed about the stressful factors inherent in the role of the nurse. Stress at work can be reduced only if high levels of mutual support are present. Furthermore, the administrative control and strong support among colleagues protect nurses from the additional demands made by the patients. Dealing with the problem is not only a state obligation or a nursing personnel demand but a moral duty of every employee. Effectiveness of participation in intervention programs has been proved in practice in countries with highly developed national health system. Prevention constitutes the main component of intevvention to eliminate the phenomenon, which can take place in individual level (the effort that the nurse himself can make to help in the timely identification of thesymptoms, the reevaluation of personal goals and expectations etc.) as well as in organizational/administrative level (the alternative strategies that can be employed by nursing administrations such as, the redistribution and increase of personnel, the change in the working pace, etc.). Such interventions, shall not only help and support nurses, but also protect them from the burnout syndrome. They reduce feelings of disappointment and dissatisfaction and limit tension and stress, improving in this way the care provided to the patient, an objective goal of every health professional.
Nowadays six antimicrobial ingredients are available that are designed for hand washing, surgical hand scrubbing or hand antisepsis. Each is different and none is ideal for all uses. These antiseptic agents are alcohols, chlorhexidine gluconate, chloroxylenol, iodine and iodophors, compound of quaternary ammonium and tridosan. This review describes the antimicrobial spectrum, the speed of action and the adverse effects of hand hygiene antiseptic agents.
Neurofibromatosis is divided in two distinct types neurofibromatosis I (Von Recklinghausen's disease, NF-1) and neurofibromatosis II (bilateral acoustic neurofibromatosis). It is transmitted as an autosomal dominant trait but 50% of new cases appear because of de novo mutations. The cardinal features of neurofibromatosis I (NF-1) are multiple neurofibromas, cafe au lait spots (CLS), axillary and inguinal freckling and pigmented iris hamartomas (Lisch nodules). In addition, the disease can be confounded by a broad spectrum of complications, such as various kinds of osseous lesions, stenosis of the renal arteries, optic glioma and learning disabilities. Malignant progression of tumors developing in NF-1 patients is a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Skin involvement in NF-1 is common. Patches of cutaneous pigmentation and multiple cutaneous tumors create the most conspicuous findings. NF-1 concerns the dermatologist because of its skin manifestations and the difficulties in their treatment. Objective The aim of this research was to evaluate the systemic control, which will allow us to make decisions on the treatment of someone who suffers from NF-1. In this way, we can have a primary control which will enable us to compare it with others in the future, if necessary. Material-Methods Thirty-three children and adults were studied in total who suffered from NF-1.They visited the Research and Treatment Centre of Genodermatoses of “Saint-Louis” Hospital, Paris, and the 2nd Paediatric clinic in Athens, “P. & A. Kyriakou”. The research lasted approximately 3 years (1996-1999). The definite diagnosis of NF-1 was based on the National Institute of Health (NIH) diagnostic criteria. The clinical examination together with the rest of the laboratories tests followed the Riccardi School. Results More than half of the patients had a family record of NF-1.The patient's age was between 5-18. All the patients had CLS on their skin, 2/3 of them had axillary and inguinal freckling and more than 2/3 developed cutaneous or subcutaneous neurofibromas. The clinical examinations and the laboratory tests revealed: (a) From the neurological examination pathological findings showed: 4 patients, the 50% percent of these patients suffered from headaches, whereas, their neurological examination was normal. Malfunctions of the urine bladder, learning disabilities, psychokinetic disorders, delay in walking, were noticed in one child. Another child with plexiform neurofibromas of the eye-socket had propto- sis of the upper eyelid, (b) The examination of the optic field was found pathological in 6 from 31 patients. All the patients had hamartomas in the celebral MRI. (c) Decrease in hearing was found 3 children and in scanning of the abdomen, neurogenic tumors revealed in 4 from 29 patients. Over than half of the patients had pathological findings in the X-ray of the spine. Conclusions Children with NF- 1 need clinical and laboratory examination even at preschool age in order to investigate the complications of the disease, to diagnose the neoplasies in the early stage and to take the appropriate medical and treatment decisions.
It is widely accepted that the number of persons who suffer from diabetes mellitus type II is constantly being increased. Despite the fact that, many research studies focus on the importance of educating not only the persons who are in high risk but also the patients with diabetes mellitus type II, in our country this issue has not been seriously taken into account. Aim The aim of the present research was to study whether education can contribute in keeping blood glucose within normal levels, aiming at the prevention of complications. Material-Methods Fiftynine diabetes patients from several public hospitals in Athens were evaluated though an open questionaire. Results The results have shown that education contributes positively to the control of blood glucose levels but serious measures have to be taken into account in the primary care of health. Conclusions Serious measures have to be taken by the authorities in order to educate the persons who are in high risk and also the patients with diabetes mellitus type II, on the importance of keeping blood sugar levels within the normal areas.