In recent decades, interest in hospital administration has turned increasingly to the effective motivation of doctors. Purpose: The presentation of selected theories of motivation through literature review and their application in medical and hospital staff. Material and methods: The Greek and international bibliography has been reviewed, and in particular papers on the motivation theories of medical staff published during the last ten years via Pub Med and Science Direct, during the period 2008-2011. The keywords that were used are: motivation, doctor needs motivation and motivation theories, motivation and medical stuff. Results: According to the literature, the motivation of doctors is a complex issue. The financial incentives cannot by themselves stimulate physicians, incentives that have to do with the achieving of goals and the recognition in the workplace and the possibility of professional development are more realistic and feasible. The issue of incentives is important for individual achievements and for the management of medical staff. The application of modern theories of motivation is essential to maintaining a satisfied staff, which sets the basis for creating a robust health care delivery system. Conclusions: For an efficient use of medical resources is necessary to diagnose the needs and selection of appropriate techniques, which offer various theories of incentives which will motivate doctors increasing their performance and satisfaction from work.