Medicines are of the biggest inventions and constitute the main mean for the insuring of the fastets and entire recovery of patients' health. Medicines had always a great position in human society. In primitive and traditional societies the compound of medical constructions comprises a stictly protected secret. The present article through a bibliographical review, investigates human's effort to discover various medicines to oppose diseases. It also refers to the progress of chemistry, not only in the section of medicines, but also in the section of physical and synthetic substances, which helped and continues helping science in the understanding of many medical phenomenons, but also equips curative arsenal with many and valuable medicines
Elderly nursing care is multidimensional and includes the discrepancy of their bio-, psycho, mental, existence and social needs. Nurses have a special role to play; especially those who work in managed elderly care settings. The new role of geriatric nurse as a counselor focuses on the prevention of possible problems or painful situations. A variety of certain factors restrict their mission and they often lead to the appearance of burnout syndrome symptoms.
Nursing profession is in the throes of revolutionary changes, a time when nursing leaders are frantically preoccupied with change itself, in addition, the nursing profession is involved in receding, shifting and evolving paradigms. Three visions of reality are expressed in the three paradigms in existence within the nursing profession including the mechanical paradigm, the holistic paradigm and the deep ecological paradigm. The Theory of Nursing Knowledge and Nursing Practice has evolved to incorporate the worldview of deep ecology and is transcended with the formulation of The Complexity Integration Nursing Theory to a metaholistic paradigm. Metaholistic paradigm is a spiritual inner self development, is a new way of thinking, understanding, acting, working, and living evolved through the development of the Complexity integration Nursing Theory.
This article deals with relations in the working place. Specifically addresses issues such as effective time management, communication within groups, the role of the group manager, ways to resolve differences and common office mistakes. The purspose of the article is to stress the importance of time management and effective group communication in improving relations within the working place.
The purpose of this study is to estimate the daily distribution of patients in the Emergency Department of Euroclinic Athens. Material-Method This study is retrospective. All data were collected from the book of the Emergency Department. The collected data concerned the distribution of patients in the Emergency Department from 1/1/2000 to 31/12/2000. The processing and presentation of collected data were contacted by the use of "Microsoft excel" and "SPSS 10.0 for Windows". Results During the studied period of time, the Emergency Department of Euroclinic Athens was visited by 3,872 patients (2,013 males and 1,859 females). The attendance of patients was bigger during the morning hours of the day. The two major symptoms of patients visiting the Emergency Department were many kinds of pain (1,846 incidents) and fever (495 incidents). The most frequently invited medical specialities were the pathologists (40%), the orthopedics (25.6%), the surgeons (12.8%) and the cardiologists (9.4%). Most of the patients (60.7%) left the Emergency Department after receiving first aid by the medical staff and the nurses. Conclusions The number of patients visiting the Emergency Department of Euroclinic Athens was small and this is justified by the fact that the most of patients who visit Euroclinic Athens are insured by specific insurance companies. Also, there was shown that most of the patients were male and the most invited doctors were the pathologists and orthopedics. In addition, the majority of dents' reception, left Euroclinic Athens, after receiving the proper medical and nursing care.
The aim of this study is to measure the frequency of pressure sores in nursing sections and to ascertain which patients are most vulnerable to the possibility of its development. Material-Methods Information regarding the personal and clinical characteristics of the patients was submitted by the matron and the nursing staff of each ward. The evaluation of the patients' general situation as well as the pressure sores was based on personal contact. The evaluation of the pressure sores was based on the Frant grading system. Evaluation of the patients was made based on the Norton chart. Results The results of this research revealed a high percentage of pressure sores in pathology wards, with the age groups of over 70 displaying the largest frequency of pressure sores, pressure sore quotient frequency revealed a dominance of women over men, weak individuals developed pressure sores easier, immobility when combined with dampness consists a factor of high risk and to conclude the highest rate of pressure sores developed in the 2nd week of hospitalization.
This paper contains the findings of a scientific research project pertaining to a population of women with β-thalassaemia and examining the frequency of their menstrual cycle. The evaluation of the menstrual cycle of the subjects (B- thalassaemia women) was based on the ferritin levels in hemoglobin before transfusion, the level of deironization and the response of the FSH-LH (Folic Stimulating Hormone-Luteinizing Hormone) after stimulation with GnRH. This study is retrospective and covers the period from 1981 to 1999. A sample of 122 B-thalassaemia women taken from the B-thaiassaemia patients referred to the "Nicosia Center for Thalassaemia" in Cyprus participated in the study. Subjects were divided into four groups according to their menstrual cycle. Women with a normal menstrual cycle were assigned to the first group, women with areomenorrhea to the second group, women with secondary amenorrhea to the third group and women with primary amenorrhea were put in the fourth group. The results obtained show that the age of the sample ranges from 15 to 48 years. The majority of the subjects (85%) were 20-40 years old. The largest group (34.1%) consisted of women with normal menstrual cycle. The results did not reveal any statistically important difference with reference to the frequency of deironization among the groups studied, while the hemoglobin levels ranged from 8.5-11 g/dL in all groups. An upward tendency in ferritin levels was found for every year (period studied=a total of 18 years) for the group with normal menstrual cycle in comparison to the group with primary amenorrhea. Statistically important differences were found for the minimum ferritin value between groups one and four (P<0.048). Finally, the average values of FSH and LH after stimulation with GnRH showed the minimum response in the secondary and primary amenorrhea groups. Statistically important differences (P<0.010) were reported for LH and (P<0.50) for FSH.
The aim of this study was to investigate the role of Early Enteral Nutrition (EEN) in burnt and multiple trauma patients. Material-Method Si patients with burns >25% of the total body surface area and 35 patients with more than two traumas were included in our study. A nutritional support protocol was followed. Blood markers and the general condition of patients were assessed for the role of EEN. Results In burnt patients, total proteins, serum albumin and serum globulin were increased significantly between all measurements. In multiple trauma patients total proteins and serum globulin were increased significantly between the 1st and 3rd measurement (PcO.OOl). Serum albumin was slightly decreased between the 1st and 3rd measurement (P=0.350). For burnt patients, between the 1st and 3rd measurement, Fe was increased (P<0.008) and for multiple trauma it was slightly increased. For burnt patients TIBC was increased (P<0.001) and for multiple trauma patients was slightly decreased. There were no significant changes in the absolute number of lymphocytes neither in immunoglobulin-lgA, IgM, IgG for both patients groups. The mean serum albumin value of the burnt patient was significantly increased compared with the multiple trauma patients (P=0.012). The mean serum globulin value of the multiple trauma patients was significantly increased compared with the burnt patients (P=0.019). TIBC did not increased between groups in the 1st and 2nd measurements, but it was significantly increased in the 3rd measurement in burnt patients compared with the multiple trauma patients (P=0.005). The mean value of immunoglobulin IgG showed a significant increase in multiple trauma patients compared with the burnt patients (P=0.006). Conclusions Generally, the results of our study confirm the effectiveness of EEN in both groups of patients as well as the existence of similarities and differences.
Keywords: Role oh early enteral nutrition, nutritional markers (total proteins, blood albumin, globulin, absolute number oh lymphocytes, immunoglobulin- lgA, IgM, IgG, Fe (iron) and TIBC-Total Iron Binding Capacity)