Health education is an effective school activity, the implementation of which depends on the good will and abilities of both health professionals and teachers. At the present time, the need to define new targets and draw up new health education programs seems particularly urgent.
In the present study, we put forward historical facts pertaining to the development of health education in the school environment and attempt to supply the necessary systematic information and data categories - conceptual framework, program development strategy, methodology, evaluation - required in order to carry out scientifically appropriate health education in schools.
The basic concepts of health education and its targets with regard to pupils call for programs which have been evaluated and adapted to the needs of individual school communities.
Those involved in developing and implementing health education programs should measure and assess the degree to which the goals set out have been achieved, as well as evaluate to what extent measures taken are in keeping with overall and specific targets.
Finally, all the aforementioned parameters lead to conclusions and suggestions that should serve as an incentive for further study of this subject.
Keywords: Primary health care, Health programs in education, School Nursing in education, Stragedy of health programs, Health programs in school, Health and school environment, Health methods and education, School and primary health, Program development strategy
It is generally accepted that a wide gap exists between Theory, Research, and Practice in the field of nursing. The literature review conducted for the purpose of this paper revealed that there are a number of different factors, which cause the above gap. These, are lack of nurses appropriately prepared for teaching, lack of appropriate educational programmes, lack of continuous education, inadequate methods of learning, lack of nursing staff, a great number of nursing students, the policy of each hospital, and the difficulty in applying effectively the research findings in the practice of nursing.
The purpose of the present paper is to explore the relation between theory, research and practice in nursing, and indicate the factors, which cause this gap. Additionally, there are made a number of proposals, in order to improve the gap between theory and practice, and a specific referral is made to the multidimensional model of connection between
theory and practice. Finally, it is pointed out the significant contribution of research in bridging the gap between theory and practice, and particularly the role of nurses, nursing managers, and teaching staff in the achievement of the above goal.
Nursing theories and models although have emerged a few decades in nursing developed countries, they have not attain extensive usage in all clinical settings worldwide. Some authors have strongly argued that it is impractical for practitioners to practice without a model, as models encourage a questioning approach and enable the delivery of high standard nursing care. The article utilising theories of change analyses a proposed model for the application of Orem's self - care deficit theory and Roper, Logan and Tierney model into clinical practice. The process of change has been considered crucial for the development of the profession and its successful management with the introduction of innovations into clinical practice is expected to contribute to the advancement and transformation of the health - care system. It is anticipated that the active involvement of nurses within a changing process will facilitate their familiarisation to the special features of a planned change project in their own working environment as well as improving the total care provided by meeting patient's needs.
The problem of musculoskeletal injuries of the lumbar loin is clearly medical, although it also has
enormous social proportions, challenging scientists and health professionals to work intensely on finding solutions
capable of minimizing and attenuating the problem. Musculoskeletal disorders are linked to the way that nursing systems function, and they constitute a multidimensional problem. Annual compensation claimed for lymbobymia totals over 14 billion dollars annually in the U.SA Bad posture during patients’ upbringing is the main cause of lumbodynia. However, the problem is more intense among nursing staff working with bedridden patients in hospitals or at home. Another cause of loin injuries is the pressure applied to the spinal column by static weights, and injury rates are proportional to the duration of the intervertebral disc. Psychosocial factors, such as job satisfaction, on-the-job relations with colleagues and superiors, as well as organization in the work-place of great importance in terms of how patients handle their work load-play a significant role in the occurrence of this problem. The study of body mechanics is crucial for the assessment of technical nursing interventions as well as for instruction in correct everyday body movements. Training of nursing staff in manual transportation of weights, ergonomic arrangement of workspace, ergonomic equipment and organization of work can be an effective contribution towards achieving this goal. Therefore, mass participation of properly trained nursing staff is of great importance for effective prevention and management of this problem.
The non steroidal antinflammatorY drugs (NSAIDs) are great family of the drugs, there are different chemistry groups, however with similar actions antinflammatory, antipyretic and analgesic. The discovery of the mechanism of their actions gave the opportunity for explaining their adverse effects and help the production of new drugs. These new drugs suppresses the COX-2 prostaglandins. The use and the indications of the NSAIDs are in common use for many illnesses and from many medical specialists. The contemporaneous descriptions more than one NSAID doesn't help the therapy, on the other hand product more adverses effects.
Public opinion, doctors and other health professionals recently realized the level of use of banned drugs, by superathlets, in order to enhance their performance. Doping is related to the history of athletics. Today the recent scientific advances produce a great number of new substances and methods in order to increase strength, endurance, tolerance to pain as well as for better looks. Antidoping is based on national and global organizations with results that for the time being are not satisfactory. This is the reason of deaths from doping side effects that are internationally observed. It is obvious that before the increase of the numbers of casualties we have to take the proper precautions.
The participation of women in production had as a result the marriage and pregnancy in older ages. The same reasons, related with better educational and socioeconomic status resulted in the reduction of pregnancies in young ages.
The aim of our work was to study the problems of pregnancy and delivery in mothers of young and advanced ages, as well as the problems in their fetuses and newborns.
We studied prospectively, according to protocol (questionnaire), in two state and one private maternity hospitals 431 cases of pregnant women aged less than 20 (159) and more than 35 (272) years old.
In our results we found that there are differences between the two age groups concerning pregnancy and delivery. These problems in the younger age group were benign, like iron deficiency 7 of them (4,4%) and urinary tract infections 3 (1,9%) whereas in the older age group there were severe problems like hypertension 10 (3,7%), diabetes 21 (7,7%), placenta previa 5 (1,8%), preterm abruption of the placenta 10 (3,7%). As far as the fetuses and the newborns are concerned IUGR 7 (2.7%) and preterm delivery 38 (14.8%) we more frequent in advanced ages.
In conclusion, the problems of the two age groups are not severe and don't threaten the mother or child's health. We believe that with better information it is possible to improve the results.
The purpose of this study was to estimate the health's attitudes of professional nurses and some o their habits that have to do with safety rules. Methods: The study's sample consisted of 280 nurses, whc work in hospitals of Athens. Specifically, 18.5% of the sample were men and 81.5% women. The age of these people was between 25 and 55 years old. 10.3% of the sample had University degree diploma and the rest o: them Middle high school diploma (technologica education). In order to collect the information, it was usee a self-completed questionnaire of 20 closed endec questions. Results: From the statistical analysis came out that: Health's attitudes supports 40.8% of the sample, while those who are married follow these rules in contrast tc those who are not married and the results were statistical significant at the p< 0.001 level. 1.5% of the married participants declare that usei addictive substances 'rarely', so is the 6.1% of the unmarried ones, appearing statistical significant results at the p< 0.001 level. Nurses smoke 'very much', in a percentage of 32.3%, wit! statistical significant results in contrast to those who dc not smoke. 16% of the female nurses 'often' proceed in ar annual check up and 6, 6% of the males participants, presenting statistical significant at the p< 0.002 level. 10.4% of women and 4.9% of men 'never' sleep 7-8 hours a day. 44% of the participants who work over 10 years find 'rarely' spare time for favorite activities in contrast to the 7.5% of the sample which can find 'always' time. At the same time, 20.3% of those who work for 5-10 years have 'rarely' spare time in comparison to the 1.3% which always has, time presenting statistical significant results at the p< 0.001 level. Conclusions: From the data's analysis is revealed that the nurses smoke in high percentages, but they do not, however use toxic substances by no means. A smaU percentage proceeds in annual check up. The majority oi the participants do not dedicate enough time for theii families, their friends and their favorites occupations.