Targeted tuberculin testing is a strategic component of tuberculosis (TB) control that identifies persons at high risk for developing TB who would benefit by treatment of TB, if detected. The appearance of an indurated area of 5mm or more 48 to 72 hours after administration of purified protein derivative (PPD) is considered a positive reaction in persons who have recently had close contact with an individual with active tuberculosis, in persons with radiographic findings consistent with a past history of tuberculosis or in persons with known or suspected human immunodeficiency virus infection. Ten or more millimeters of induration is considered a positive reaction in persons at increased risk of tuberculosis. Induration of 15mm or more is considered a positive result in all other persons. Ten percent to 25% of people with active tuberculosis have false‐negative test results, especially early in treatment. Some people who are not infected have a reaction due to infection with other mycobacterial species or to bacilli Calmette‐Guerin vaccine BCG).
It is well known that the patients who suffer from pain can develop a wide variety of behaviours. At the same time they experience a plethora of biological, psychological and social problems. Undeniably the nurses constitute an integral part of the multidisciplinary team of approach and relief of patient's pain. The nurse's role is developed and organized with independence in the healt h care team and expresses itself in a wide spectrum of activities. Aim in the present article is to highlight the force of nurse among the multidisciplinary team, analyzing the multiple roles undertaken by nurses, as well as the necessity for holistic approach of pain.
In this article hereby, it is presented concisely the multifarious legislation in force on the hygiene and safety in the work, its field of application, as well as the anticipated administrative and penal sanctions.
Aim: We have studied the prevalence of Hepatitis B Virus on the first‐year students of the Paramedical Schools (Medical Lab Department, Nursing Department, Baby Nursing Department and Obstetrics Department of the Health and Foresight Professions School of Technological Educational School of Thessaloniki). Materials and Methods: The sample consists of 502 students of the Paramedical Schools. They were taken serum sample for quantitative determination of HbsAg, Anti-HBs, Anti-HBc. The samples were checked with immunological analyser that uses ELISA method by the manufacturer's criteria. Results: 502 serum samples were checked and 4 samples were found HbsAg positive. A Confirmation Assay used on these samples and showed that truly HbsAg positive was only one sample (percentage ~0,2%). Quantitative determination of Anti‐HBs showed: 175 serum samples had antibody titer >500 MIU/mL, 97 serum samples had antibody titer 101-500 MIU/mL, 78 serum samples had antibody titer 11-100 MIU/mL and 152 serum samples had antibody titer 0-10 MIU/mL. Conclusions: The prevalence of Hepatitis B on our sample is low. However anyone must be careful with Hepatitis B, specially the students of Paramedical Schools and other professionals of high risk professions. Vaccination of high risk groups against HB virus would help to decrease he danger from Hepatitis B.
Aim: Mycotic vaginitis is an inflammation of the vagina which develops in a large number of women of reproductive age. It is of great importance that up to 90% of all women will develop at least once in their lifespan mycotic vaginitis, while a great number of women develop asymptomatic MV. Material and method: In the current study, 500 women aged 18 to 45 years old undertook a vaginal secretion microbiological examination/test. The microbiological examination / test was done either because of the existence of symptoms, or in the context of preventive control. Furthermore, the existence of various clinical symptoms was recorded (sense of itching or burning, excessive vaginal secretion, existence of pain, as well as the presence of rush or pain in genital area). Results: It was found that 38% of examined women had developed MV, while15% of them were asymptomatic. Moreover, 68% mentioned the existence of itching, 52% the existence of pain, 25% excessive secretion, while 40% were found with clinical rush. Conclusion: The high percentages of women who develop MV and especially the fairly high percentages of asymptomatic MV, constitute the laboratory control as one of the basic measures of prevention against MV.