Nowadays smoking is an important cause of ill health and mortality and imposes significant causes in the society, for example in terms of health care cost and human suffering. Aim of the present study was to review the literature about health promotion against smoking cessation during pregnancy and the appropriate approaches and interventions of health promoters on pregnant women in order to stop smoking. Method and material: The methodology that was followed included bibliography review from the both the research and the review literature of Greek and international data base which referred to health promotion and smoking cessation during pregnancy. Results: In western countries women smokers are likely to increase as a percentage of a total smoking population. Researchers indicate that women display a greater reliance on smoking to help them deal with emotional conflicts. The fact that smoking during pregnancy can harm the fetus as well as the mother is well known. However, a great number of women continue to smoke during their pregnancy and interventions to pregnant smokers reveal to be complex and difficult. Health professionals such as physicians, nurses, midwives and health visitors are well placed to provide smoking cessation interventions mostly because they should be trained and because also they come in contact with pregnant smokers in frequent basis. The science of health promotion and health education provides a variety of counseling and approaching models for pregnant smokers such as “Attitudinal and Behavioral Change”, “Knowledge-Attitude-Behavior”, “Medical”, “Empowerment”, “Rational Educational”, “Health Belief” and “Health Action”. Conclusions: Health professionals from all levels should reconsider their perceptions and attitudes on the importance of maternal smoking during pregnancy and they have to examine which forms of support and approaches are considered to be the most appropriate against maternal smoking taking into account all the delicate issues and the sensitive elements of pregnant women psychology.
Family has a significant role in hospital treatment of patients, since it can provide effective psychological and emotional support to patients undergoing treatment to hospital. Additionally, the above role of family is not only significant for adults but also for children and pregnant women, who need their husbands during their childbirth. Consequently, the medical and nursing staff need to maintain a continuous contact with parents and relatives of patients, and provide them with the appropriate information concerning the condition of their patient and the progress of the therapeutic program. This can make them capable of providing effective psychological support to their patient.
Metabolic Syndrome (MS) is consisted by a group of interrelated disorders increasing the risk for cardiovascular diseases and type II diabetes causing diseases and deaths in modern world. Purpose of the current study is to relate the evaluation of the metabolic syndrome parameters in clinical practice. Data sources and methods: The methodology which was used in this study included Greek and international bibliography review with the help of key-words. Results: Bibliography review showed that the criteria for Metabolic Syndrome are not well-defined and vary according to age, gender and race, while new risk factors are identified every day. Unhealthy diet and lack of physical activity are the basic features of obesity in childhood and adolescence. As a result, the frequency of metabolic disorders constantly increases in overweight or obese children and adolescents and therefore it is necessary for the diagnosis of the syndrome. Conclusions: Metabolic Syndrome management should be based upon an individualized risk assessment and not upon a simple summation and effort in getting treatment separately for each metabolic disorder. Prompt diagnosis and treatment of children and adolescents with multiple risk factors will contribute substantially to prevention by adopting a healthy lifestyle and reducing future syndrome complications.
It is since mythology to classical ages in Greece, since Medieval Ages to the end of the 19th century in Smyrna and in Athens, that history indicates the abandonment of the infants as a phenomenon always existing. A time flashback and the research of the phenomenon through the historic examples contribute unequivocally to the remonstrance of the social facts in each era. Aim: The aim of this study was to critically review all the historical data and the evidence from the international and Greek literature and to explore the factors that are accountable for to the infant’s abandonment and especially in Greece. Method: A critical literature search was performed using of MEDLINE and CINAHL (1990-2008) databases. The literature review referred to historical data related to the care of the abandoned infants since ancient Greek times. Conclusion: The literature review leads to the conclusion that the detection of the historical sources combines a “mosaic” which reflects the multiple needs of the Greek society, with target to encounter the infant abandonment. The ways used each time in order the phenomenon to be faced, not rarely were doubted. Still they stand as the salutary solutions for the abandoned infants and they are explained and established through the social background of each era and through the needs serviced each time.
During last decades, the National Health System’s interest of many countries has been focused on primary health care (PHC), of which the main centre is the human being and it is the main pillar for promoting health and improving quality of life. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to explore Greek citizen’s needs and the responsiveness of health services in terms of coverage. Material-Method: The sample studied consisted of 1206 citizens of Greece. Collection of data was performed by means of an anonymous questionnaire specially designed for the needs of the research. Analysis of data was performed by the SPSS version 15 statistical package and the statistical method one way anova. Results: 45% of the sample studied was men with a mean age of 65.43 years and standard deviation 10.43 years. Regarding the place of living, 29.2% of the sample was inhabitants of Athens, 11.9% of Thessalonica, 42.2% of Crete and 13.2% of the participants were living in other cities of the country. In terms of occupational status, 32.3% were working, 50.5% were retired, 13.3% were households while 4% were unemployed. According to the needs of the citizens, 62.6% reported that they preferred psychological support, whereas 37.4% reported financial support. 64.7% of the participants were willing to use the health services of Greek municipalities. In regard to their needs, 24.8% of the studied population reported their need for more time available by health care professionals, 64.7% were willing to use the health services of Greek municipalities while 80.1% declared positive attitude for help by volunteer teams. The statistical analysis showed that men and workers assessed positively the quality of health services with statistical difference compared to women and retired people, p<0.001, respectively. Conclusions: The factors that determine citizen’s needs are gender and marital status. The results of the study suggest that citizens have more need for understanding and information and provided quality in primary health care.
|Health - related quality of life of women with breast cancer is defined as the subjective evaluation of the effect of the disease and its treatment to physical, psychological and social level of functioning and well-being. The aim of the present study was to estimate the change of health- related quality of life at patients with early- stage breast cancer one year after the diagnosis and the initial therapeutic intervention. Material – method: The material of the study was 181 patients age between 28 to 88 years with breast cancer stage II. The entry criteria were: 1) females with breast cancer stage II, who would have been in need of adjuvant therapy after the initial operational intervention. 2) Moreover, they should not have been hospitalized for the same reason in the past and they should have a satisfying ability in communication. The data collection was made with the use of the QLQ C-30 questionnaire of the European Organization for the Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) in association with the module for the breast cancer (module Br23).The data collection was realized through interviews conducted by the researchers at two different time points: at the diagnosis point and the one year after the diagnosis. It was an easy sample. Results: To sum up, health- related quality of life was estimated as worse in the first year after diagnosis and the initial therapeutic intervention. Furthermore, remarkable was, the deterioration of symptoms (fatigue, pain, nausea, sleep loss, appetite loss, constipation, dyspnoea). The deterioration was also visible to the patients’ body image and to the treatment side effects of adjuvant therapies. Conclusions: The breast cancer influences negatively health- related quality of life in patients with early stage breast cancer. After the completion of the adjuvant therapies, there are major problems like fatigue, pain and aggravated body image, which make patients suffer. The altered body image provokes stress and female patients with breast cancer need support. The sexual functioning is also being influenced negatively due to the changed body image. The financial difficulties are an additional aspect to the already deteriorated situation.
Cervical cancer is among the most frequent cancers worldwide. Its prevention is possible with Papanikolaou test (Pap test). Purpose: The purpose was to investigate the knowledge of women-health professionals, as well as the frequency of Pap testing among them. Material and method: 151 women health professionals, aged 18-65 years old took part in the study. A closed –type questionnaire, consisting of 66 items was used. The statistical test x2 and Mann-Whitney –U were used. Results: 60 % were AEI/TEI graduates and 65 % were residents of provincial towns. Monthly family income was between 1000-2000 Euros in 46% of the participants.60 % of the women knew exactly the purpose of the test, whereas the younger women , those who were unmarried and inhabitants of rural areas were statistically less probable to take the test, even for once in a lifetime(p<0.01). Conclusion: Women health professionals as a whole do not know the exact purpose of Pap test. The young, unmarried women, living in rural areas neglect taking the test.