Conflict is a fact that happens or it can be happening between individuals or groups. Conflict is defined as the process that begins when one party perceives that another party has negatively affected or is about to negatively affect something that the first party cares about. There are three transitions in conflict thought: the traditional view, the human relation view and the interactionist view. There are also two kinds of conflict: the functional and the dysfunctional. The difference between them is the group production. Conflict process comprising of five stages: (a) the potential opposition or incompatibility: the presence of conditions that create opportunities for conflict to arise: communication, structure and personal variables, (b) cognition and personalization, (c) intentions such as competing, collaborating, avoiding, accommodating and compromising, (d) behavior which varies from simple disagreement to the complete opponent extermination, (e) outcomes (positive or negative) that characterize a conflict as functional or dysfunctional. The term conflict is not necessary bad and it mustn't be always avoided, because it maybe constructive. That means that conflict may improve the quality of decision, stimulate creativity and innovation, encourage interest and fosters an environment of self-evaluation and change. On the other side the destructive conflict must be avoided, because it can reduce group effectiveness but the worst is to lead the group functioning to a halt and potentially threaten the group's survival.
The certification of quality constitutes today a basic element of business competitiveness. The application of quality management systems, as we have already realized in the practice henceforth, has offered multiple profits in the industrial sector. In the sector of health, because of many particularities that are presented and the fact
that even the simple qualitative control has not been applied effectively, there are a lot of factors of devalorisation of quality and serious obstacles in the application of quality management systems. In the direction of some effort for upgrading the quality of health services, certain little steps have emerged from the side of the
state with the attempted reform under the general title “Health for the Citizen”. A number of recent statutes advance in the enactment of processes of qualitative control and creation of infrastructures for the measurement and evaluation of quality. What is really required, however, is the planning of importing the quality management and the progressive application of total quality administration in health units, with final objective to create suitable conditions for the continuous improvement of the provided health services level.
Wine consumption as a mean of cardiovascular protection because of its antioxidant content is an unproven strategy. It is still unclear what the effects of other antioxidants on human disease may be. Fresh fruits and vegetables, including non alcoholic grape beverages, should have a similar antioxidant action as red wine. Overall, light to moderate consumption of any type of alcohol containing beverage appears to reduce platelets aggregation and provides an antithrombotic benefit similar to that of aspirin. No clinical trials have provided verification that alcohol can be used to increase HDL cholesterol levels. In contrast, treatment of patients with low HDL with statins as primary prevention and with fibric acids as secondary prevention has been shown to be beneficial. A number of dietary factors, such as consumption of fresh fruits, vegetables and fish and reduced intake of milk products, differ within the
If we want to evaluate the medical advances during the last centuries focusing on the health protection of large human groups it is sure that we should first think about antibiotics and vaccines. Many diseases that were previously causing fear and horror to the humanity, belong today for the civilized world, to the «Pantheon» of historic diseases. Despite the fact that vaccinations started more than a hundred years ago, even in our time it is not unnecessary to repeat the basic principles that we must always keep in mind. To remember the importance of clinical examination and medical history of every candidate for vaccination, as well as all the current beliefs for immunizations is not in vain. Nowadays, except the well known old vaccines there are also new ones having therefore increased the number of vaccinations for every child. Because of all the advantages they provide, there is today a tension to use multiple vaccines with 4-6 antigens. Regarding the timing of vaccinations, the wise thing to do is to follow the latest strategies and policies for vaccinations because they change according to the last epidemiological and scientific advances. Also, we must never forget that despite the endemy or not of a certain disease in a country we should never loose our attention given the shortening of distances and the tendency for emigration
The passage to maternity is a period which has been studied mainly for the negative emotions developed during this period. The limited research in positive disposal and positive emotions (self-confidence, optimism, confidence etc.) during pregnancy, childbirth and postpartum shows how these contribute to adapting to maternity, as well as to the woman's mental and physical health including the relationship between the mother and her newborn child.
A pair wise-matched (1:1) case-control study was performed in IGU patients. The aim of the study was to estimate the excess length of stay attributable to nosocomial infection (Nl) and the extra costs of the excess length of stay by comparison with hospital stay of infected versus uninfected patients using the matching method. The population of the study were all those patients that were admitted and stayed >48 hours in the IGU during the study period. Gases were defined as patients with nosocomial infection; controls were selected according to matching variables. Matching variables were primary diagnosis for admission, age and length of stay before the day of onset of the first infection. In crude comparison of the length of stay between patients with and without Nl, the excess length of ICU stay attributable to Nl was 14 days and between patients surviving infection was 16 days. The extra charges for excess length of ICU stay were 3005.12 euro per survivor. In matched-pair comparisons the length of stay attributable to Nl was 8.5 days and between patients surviving infection was 13 days. The extra charges for excess length of ICU stay were 2441.66 euro per survivor. In conclusion, matched-pairs comparison may proved to be a more appropriate and reliable analysis method than crude comparison for the purpose of evaluating the excess length of stay attributable to Nl and the extra charges for excess length of stay in ICU.
Even if bioethics consists a part of Ethics, it has established its own principles in order to face the special difficulties of bioethical matters. The principles that were proposed were not panacea for the bioethical thought. Even though, they constituted a common point of reference. An even more important issue is that of the bioethics and its role in the society. Do the aspects of bioethicists influence the societies, their governors and have legislative power? Both subjects, principles and role in the society are very important to whoever wants to have a realistic approach to what is named “bioethics” today.